Class M stars are by far the most common. About 76% of the main-sequence stars in the Solar neighborhood are class M stars.

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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Showing the relationship between the stars’ luminosities versus their spectral classifications is done in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

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A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star.

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A debris disk is a circumstellar disk of dust and debris in orbit around a star. Debris disks have been found around both mature and young stars, as well as at least one debris disk in orbit around an evolved neutron star.

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Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium. This occurs when the magnetic field of an astrophysical object interacts with the nearby flowing ambient plasma.

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