Photoevaporation denotes the process where energetic radiation ionises gas and causes it to disperse away from the ionising source. This typically refers to an astrophysical context where ultraviolet radiation from hot stars acts on clouds of material such as molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, or planetary atmospheres.
A Stellar Flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed near a Star’s surface. It involves a very broad spectrum of emissions, requiring an energy release of up to 6 × 1025 joules of energy for the Sun (roughly the equivalent of 160,000,000,000 megatons of TNT).
The electromagnetic spectrum is the collective term for all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth.
The habitable zone (HZ), is the range of orbits around a star within which rocky planets with sufficient atmospheric pressure can support liquid water at their surfaces.