The Solar System is located inside the "Local Bubble", which is a cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way. It contains, among others, the Local Interstellar Cloud and the G-cloud.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Showing the relationship between the stars’ luminosities versus their spectral classifications is done in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star.
Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium. This occurs when the magnetic field of an astrophysical object interacts with the nearby flowing ambient plasma.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two, three, four, or even more stars are called multiple star systems.