A Gas Giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter and Saturn are the Solar System's gas giants.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. There are two known ice giants in the Solar System, Uranus and Neptune.
A Chthonian Planet is a class of celestial objects resulting from the stripping away of a gas giant’s hydrogen and helium atmosphere and outer layers, which is called hydrodynamic escape.
A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that’s more massive than the planet Jupiter but less massive than a Brown Dwarf. Even though they are more massive than Jupiter, they remain about the same size as Jupiter up to 80 Jupiter masses.
A carbon planet is a type of planet that contains more carbon than oxygen. Carbon planets could form if protoplanetary discs are carbon-rich and oxygen-poor.